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keep hardworking
General Category
Rana Imran
September 11, 2019
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Keep Hardworking
General Category
Rana Imran
September 11, 2019
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Anti Skid Materials for Road
General Category
Rana Imran
March 15, 2019
1

The road network and traffic density in Pakistan is increasing on a phenomenal rate which require a demand for superior quality all weather road marking products.

All the products are produced under licence from Adbruf Ltd UK on stringent quality parameters and tested by an independent lab along with an in house testing facility.

 

The most interesting products are the range of skid resistance. These reduces the skid of the wheels when breaks are applied. Resulting reduction in accidents related to slip.

The product is also available in pedestrian grade in different color shades.

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Waterproofing
General Category WATERPROOFING
Rana Imran
March 15, 2019
0

Waterproofing is the process of making an object or structure waterproof or water-resistant, so that it remains relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions. Such items may be used in wet environments or under water to specified depths.

“Water resistant” and “waterproof” often refer to penetration of water in its liquid state and possibly under pressure, whereas damp proof refers to resistance to humidity or dampness. Permeation of water vapor through a material or structure is reported as a water vapor transmission rate.

All structures require waterproofing – weather to keep water out (Basements), or to keep water in (reservoirs).

Waterproofing a structure is a critical element of its design and construction. Water infiltration and leakage damage a building’s structure and its contents. Because of the damaging effect of water, one must pay particular attention in selecting a quality waterproofing system and applicators to provide proper in place performance.

The most common sources of water leakage are through structural defects such as cracks and void, or through construction and control joints. Below-grade areas are susceptible to fluctuating water tables while horizontal decks are susceptible to pond water.

The best way to avoid the problem is through the proper design and careful selection of the waterproofing system.

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Joints Sealing
General Category
Rana Imran
March 15, 2019
0

Joints are essential features of modern buildings and structures. They allow for shrinkage, contraction, expansion and other movements which cause tensile or compressive stress. Shear movements, design tolerances and breaks between phases of construction are also accommodated by joints.

Joints cannot be left open. Any kind of joint that might be penetrated by wind, dirt, water or other undesirable material needs to be sealed.

After a building has been completed, joints are a small, usually unnoticed part of the whole. But if joints are not properly designed and sealed against wind and weather, the result can lead to total failure of the structure- larger the project, the greater the disaster.

If the sealing of exterior joints is concerned with keeping the elements out, interior joint sealing fulfills rather different functions. In addition to ensuring a joint impenetrable to moisture, there are many other important considerations: hygiene, acoustics, interior décor and finishes-there are even aspects of safety.

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Decay of Reinforced Concrete
General Category
Rana Imran
March 15, 2019
1

CONCRETE DECAY: Visible Symptoms…..

The decay of reinforced concrete is now a common sight around the world , Symptoms can include:

Cracking, Sapling, Rusting of exposed steel reinforcement, Staining of concrete surfaces etc.

Typical Causes

The many and varied causes of concrete ‘distress’ may be divided into two distinct categories:

-attack on the concrete it self

And……..

-those causing corrosion of embedded reinforcing steel

Both can exacerbated by the shortcomings in the original construction process.

Affecting Concrete Itself…..

Attacks on concrete can be physical or chemical:

•        Physical Attack includes

-Water erosion, Wind-borne sand erosion, abrasion by wheels, or machinery, impact damage, Overload, Fire, Freezing and thawing cycles in colder climates etc.

•        Chemical Attack includes:

-industrial spillage of aggressive chemicals, action of sulphates in ground water, internal crystal growth (in hot climates), alkali-silica reaction (ASR),

Causing Corrosion Of Reinforcing Steel

Corrosion of reinforcing steel is the most common reason for concrete distress. While many factors accelerate the process, there are two fundamental mechanisms which cause the problem:

•        Carbonation – the effect of carbon dioxide (and/ or other acidic gases) present in the atmosphere

•        Chloride attack – the contaminating effect of chloride ions which may be present from one or more of the following sources:

-marine or costal locations, -use of road de-icing salts, -within the concrete matrix as a result of the use of contaminated raw materials during construction

Due To Poor Workmanship…..

The original construction process can be the source of many problems. The most common reasons include

•        Poor Concrete Mix Design

•        Poor Placement of steel reinforcement and shuttering

•        Inadequate Site Supervision during concrete placement

•        Inadequate Concrete Vibration – failure to ensure proper compaction

•        Poor Curing Techniques – failure to ensure full strength gain

Decay Aggravated By Ambient Conditions

Each of the following will accelerate the mechanisms of deterioration described above:

•        Elevated temperatures, High humidity/rain, Wet/dry cycling

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Cold Weather Concrete
General Category
Rana Imran
March 15, 2019
0

Cold Weather for Concrete

Cold weather is defined as a period when the average daily temperature falls below 40°F [4°C] for more than three successive days. These conditions warrant special precautions when placing, finishing, curing and protecting concrete against the effects of cold weather.

Precautions For Cold Weather Concrete

To handle the cold, have everything you might need on hand and review these tips:

  • Frozen ground- NEVER place concrete on frozen ground or onto ice or snow. There are a couple of problems with this. First, frozen ground will settle when it thaws, cracking the concrete. Second, when the ground is cold, the concrete in contact with it will be cold and will set more slowly. You can even get crusting, with the top part of the concrete set and the bottom still soft.
  • If the ground is frozen, you can thaw it using hydronic heat pipes and blankets (such as those from Ground Heaters), or electric blankets (check out Power Blanket).
  • Remove all snow and ice in areas where concrete is to be placed. Also remove any standing water that could get mixed into the concrete.
  • Warm up anything that will come in contact with the concrete, including forms and any embedments, to at least 32°F. If it’s not too cold and you cover everything with tarps the day before the pour, it will stay dry and warm enough. Keep tools in your truck or trailer.
  • Be ready with blankets, even if you don’t think it will get that cold. Also consider whether you will need lights if the concrete sets more slowly than expected and the winter sun sets just as you’re finally ready to start finishing.

There will be some heat loss from the ready mix plant to the job site. For a one-hour delivery time, the concrete temperature will drop about one-fourth the difference between the air temperature and the concrete temperature. So if the concrete’s 65°F and the air is 45°F, in one-hour of travel it will drop 5°F and the concrete will end up at 60°F.

Anti Freezing Concrete Admixtures

DESCRIPTION:

It’s a chloride free admixture in liquid form for concrete in cold weather. Its addition helps to maintain normal setting times even at low temperatures.

USES:

·     Concreting at low temperatures.

·     Increased frost resistance.

·     Improved strengths at low ambient temperatures.

Antifreeze does not contain chlorides or other ingredients which can cause corrosion of steel. It is therefore suitable for reinforced concrete.

APPROVAL/STANDARDS:

Conforms to the requirements of ASTM C 494, Type C

TECHNICAL DATA:

Chemical Base Liquid, including special salts

Density 1.20 ± 0.01 Kg/Lit. (at + 20°C)

Freezing Point < – 15°C

DOSAGE:

1 % by weight of cement (for 100 Kg cement, 1,000 g)

COMPATIBILITY:

Antifreeze may be combined among others with the following products:

·        Silica Fume

·        Concrete admixtures

Trials are recommended before combining products.

DISPENSING:

Antifreeze is added to the gauging water at the plant or added on site into the concrete mixer. When added separately to the freshly mixed concrete, further mixing should take place for at least 3 minutes. Before being discharged, the concrete must be visually inspected for even consistency.

APPLICATION METHOD:

The standard rules of good concreting practice, concerning production as well as placing are to be followed.

CLEANING OF TOOLS:

Clean all tools and application equipment with water immediately after use. Hardened/ cured material can only be mechanically removed.

CAUTION:

·          If Antifreeze freezes in the drum, thaw gradually in a heated environment (avoid direct flame contact). Once thawed all properties remain unaffected.

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Non Shrink Cementitious Grout
General Category
Rana Imran
March 15, 2019
0

Non-shrink grout is a hydraulic cement grout that produces a big volume that, when hardened under stipulated test conditions, is greater than or equal to the original installed volume; often used as a transfer medium between load-bearing members.

Typical characteristics

  • Often sets rapidly
  • Usually a pre-mix product that needs only to be mixed with [water]
  • Includes ingredients to compensate against cement stone shrinkage
  • Use of shrinkage-compensating ingredients can result in volume increase over time

Performance Requirements: Usually NS grout complying with the following requirements:

Compliance’s:

  • ASTM C1107, Grades B and C.
  • Corps of Engineers CRD C621, Grades B and C, at fluid consistency over 30-minute working time at temperature range of 40 to 90 degrees F (4 to 32 degrees C).
  • ANSI/NSF 61, for use with potable water

Compressive Strength, Plastic Consistency, ASTM C942 according to ASTM C1107:

  • 1 Day: 4,500 psi (31 MPa).
  • 3 Days: 6,000 psi (41 MPa).
  • 7 Days: 7,500 psi (52 MPa).
  • 28 Days: 9,000 psi (62 MPa).

Volume Change, Fluid Consistency, ASTM C1090:

  • 1 Day: Greater than 0 percent.
  • 3 Days: 0.04 percent.
  • 14 Days: 0.05 percent.
  • 28 Days: 0.06 percent.

Setting Time, Plastic Consistency, ASTM C191:

  • Initial Set: 2 hours 30 minutes.
  • Final Set: 4 hours.

Flexural Strength, Fluid Consistency, ASTM C78:

  • 3 Days: 1,000 psi (6.9 MPa).
  • 7 Days: 1,050 psi (7.2 MPa).
  • 28 Days: 1,150 psi (7.9 MPa).

Modulus of Elasticity, Fluid Consistency, ASTM C469, Modified:

  • 3 Days: 2.82 x 106 psi (1.94 x 104 MPa).
  • 7 Days: 3.02 x 106 psi (2.08 x 104 MPa).
  • 28 Days: 3.24 x 106 psi (2.23 x 104 MPa).

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, Fluid Consistency, ASTM C531:

  • 6.5 x 10-6 in/in/degree F (11.7 x 10-6 mm/mm/degree C).

Splitting Tensile Strength, Fluid Consistency, ASTM C496:

  • 3 Days: 575 psi (4.0 MPa).
  • 7 Days: 630 psi (4.3 MPa).
  • 28 Days: 675 psi (4.7 MPa).

Tensile Strength, Fluid Consistency, ASTM C190:

  • 3 Days: 490 psi (3.4 MPa).
  • 7 Days: 500 psi (3.4 MPa).
  • 28 Days: 500 psi (3.4 MPa).

Resistance to Rapid Freezing and Thawing, ASTM C666, Procedure A, 300 cycles RDF:

  • 99 percent.

VOC Content: 0 lbs per gal (0 g/L), less water and exempt solvents.

SURFACE PREPARATIONS

Prepare surfaces in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

Clean steel surfaces of dirt, oil, grease, and other contaminants.

Ensure surface to be grouted is clean, saturated-surface dry, sound, and roughened to CSP of 5 to 9 in accordance with (International Concrete Repair Institute) ICRI Guideline 03732 to permit proper bond.

Chip concrete surfaces to roughness of plus or minus 3/8 inch (10 mm) when dynamic, shear, or tensile forces are anticipated. Verify absence of bruising in accordance with ICRI Guideline 03732.

Saturate concrete surfaces with clean water for 24 hours immediately before grouting.

Remove freestanding water from foundations and bolt holes immediately before grouting.

Grout and sufficiently set anchor bolt holes before major portion of grout is placed.

Shade foundation from sunlight 24 hours before and 24 hours after grouting.

If saturation is not possible use bonding epoxy on the substrate prior to grouting.

FORMING

Erect forms in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

Erect forms liquid tight and nonabsorbent. Seal forms with putty, sealant, caulk, or polyurethane foam.

Use head form sloped at 45 degrees to enhance grout placement, if necessary.

Erect side and end forms minimum of 1 inch (25 mm) horizontally from object grouted to permit expulsion of air and remaining saturation water as grout is placed.

Leave minimum of 2 inches (51 mm) between bearing plate and form to allow for ease of placement.

Use sufficient bracing to prevent grout from leaking or moving.

Eliminate large, nonsupport grout areas wherever possible.

Extend forms minimum of 1 inch (25 mm) higher than bottom of equipment being grouted.

Consult grout manufacturer for recommendations regarding expansion joints.

MIXING

Mix materials in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

Store and mix grout to produce desired mixed-grout temperature. If bagged material is hot, mix with cold water. If bagged material is cold, mix with warm water. Achieve mixed-product temperature as close to 70 degrees F (21 degrees C) as possible.

Adjust water to achieve desired flow. Recommended flow is 25 to 30 seconds using ASTM C939 Flow-Cone Method. Use minimum amount of water required to achieve necessary placement consistency.

Mix grout a minimum of 5 minutes after material and water is in mixer. Use mechanical mixers.

Do not mix more grout than can be placed in approximately 30 minutes.

Do not re-temper grout by adding water and remixing after it stiffens.

APPLICATION

Place grout in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

Ensure foundation, plate, and grout temperatures do not fall below 40 degrees F (7 degrees C) until after final set, when grouting at minimum temperatures.

Place grout from only 1 side of equipment to prevent air or water entrapment beneath equipment. Place grout in continuous pour.

Discard grout that becomes unworkable.

Ensure grout fills entire space being grouted and remains in contact with plate throughout grouting process.

Do not vibrate grout to facilitate placement. Use steel straps inserted under plate to help move grout.

Immediately after placement, trim surfaces with trowel and cover exposed grout with clean wet rags. Do not use burlap. Keep rags moist until grout surface is ready for finishing or until final set.

Wait until grout offers stiff resistance to penetration with pointed mason’s trowel before grout forms are removed or excessive grout is cut back.

Consult grout manufacturer before placing lifts more than 6 inches (152 mm) in depth.

CURING

Cure grout in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

Cure exposed grout with membrane curing compound approved by grout manufacturer and compliant with ASTM C309 or preferably ASTM C1315.

Apply curing compound immediately after wet rags are removed to minimize potential moisture loss.

PROTECTION

Protect grout from temperatures at and below 32 degrees F (0 degrees C) until grout has attained compressive strength of 3,000 psi (21 MPa).

Protect completed grout from damage during construction

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SBR For Construction Industry
General Category
Rana Imran
March 15, 2019
0

Introduction & History

Styrene-butadiene or styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) describe families of synthetic rubbers derived from styrene and butadiene. These materials have good abrasion resistance and good aging stability when protected by additives. In 2012, more than 5.4 million tons of SBR were processed worldwide. About 50% of car tires are made from various types of SBR. The styrene/butadiene ratio influences the properties of the polymer: with high styrene content, the rubbers are harder and less rubbery. SBR is not to be confused with a thermoplastic elastomer made from the same monomers, styrene-butadiene block copolymer.

SBR is a replacement for natural rubber. It was originally developed prior to World War II in Germany by chemist Walter Bock. Industrial manufacture began during World War 2, and was used extensively by the U.S. Synthetic Rubber Program to produce Government Rubber-Styrene (GR-S); to replace the Southeast Asian supply of natural rubber which, under Japanese occupation, was unavailable to Allied nations.

Applications

It is a commodity material which competes with natural rubber. The elastomer is used widely in pneumatic tires. This application mainly calls for E-SBR, although S-SBR is growing in popularity. Other uses include shoe heels and soles, gaskets, and even chewing gum.

Latex (emulsion) SBR is extensively used in coated papers, being one of the cheapest resins to bind pigmented coatings.

It is also used in building applications, as a sealing and binding agent behind renders as an alternative to PVA, but is more expensive. In the latter application, it offers better durability, reduced shrinkage and increased flexibility, as well as being resistant to emulsification in damp conditions.

SBR is often used as part of cement based sub-structural (basement) waterproofing systems where as a liquid it is mixed with water to form the Gauging solution for mixing the powdered Tanking material to slurry. SBR aids the bond strength, reduces the potential for shrinkage and adds an element of flexibility.

ADVANTAGES

  • Excellent Bond Strength
  • Improved Tensile, Flexural And Compressive Strength
  • Resistant To Water Penetration
  • Highly Recommended For Repairs And Rehabilitation Of Structures
  • Easy To Use

FUNCTION

SBR when incorporated into cement mortar mixes, forms polymer modified system with interpenetrating polymer films which exhibits excellent adhesion, improved tensile, flexural and compressive strengths, excellent resistance to water, water vapor and improved chemical resistance.

USES

  • SBR can be used for repairing concrete elements like beams, columns and slabs.
  • SBR is an excellent material for bedding tiles, fixing slip bricks, waterproofing above and below grade, abrasion resistant flooring and lining effluent tanks and tubes.
  • SBR provides excellent adhesion between old and new concrete and hence ensures a monolithic system after repair.

METHOD OF APPLICATION:

When SBR modified mixes are used, it is essential that the following procedures are closely followed.

SURFACE PREPARATION

Remove all laitance, oil, grease, mold oil, curing compound etc. by using a wire brush. On larger floor areas, a scrubbing machine can also be used. Ensure that reinforcing steel is clean and free from grease or oil, remove scale and rust. While repairing spalled or damaged concrete, ensure exposed sound surface.

BONDING SLURRY

Ensure that absorbent surfaces such as concrete, brick, stone etc. are saturated surface dry. Prepare bonding slurry consisting of 2 parts cement to 1 part SBR, mixed to a lump free consistency. Using a stiff brush work the bonding slurry well into the damp surface ensuring that no pinholes are visible. Do not apply bonding slurry at thickness in excess of 2mm. If a second coat is necessary, it must be applied after allowing the first coat to “flash-off”.

PREPARATION OF SBR MODIFIED MIXS

It is important that the SBR modified mix is applied to the wet bonding slurry. If the bonding slurry dries, another coat must be applied. The proportions and quantities of sand, cement and SBR differ for particular applications (see mix design).

WORKABILITY

The strong plasticizing action of SBR allows the water cement ratio to be reduced to a minimum consistency with workability required for application.

MIXING

Mixing should preferably be carried out in a concrete mixer although hand mixing is permissible where the total weight of the mix does not exceed 25 kg.

Charge the mixer with the required quantity of sand and cement, and premix for approximately one minute. Pour the desired quantity of SBR and mix for 2 to 3 minutes. Finally, add the water little by little, until the required consistency is achieved. Owing to the strong plasticizing properties of SBR, it is best to add the water cautiously as rapid thinning can occur.

CURING

It is preferable to cure SBR modified mortars as soon as they are laid to prevent rapid evaporation of water essential for hydration. This can be achieved by using polythene, damp Hessian, or a suitable concrete curing membrane.

COMPATIBILITY

SBR is compatible with all types of OPC, sulphate resisting and high alumina cements.

PROPERTIES:

Supply form     :    White Liquid

Specific gravity           :     1.01 at 20oC

Toxicity                       :      Nil

SPECIFICATION COMPLIANCE:

SBR should meet ASTM C 1059-99, Standard Specification for Latex Agents for Bonding Fresh to Hardened Concrete, Type II.

APPLICATIONS

VERTICAL SURFACES (RENDERS)

For renders, it is preferable to apply SBR modified mortars in coats to a maximum thickness of 6mm per coat, as greater thickness can lead to slumping. However, several coats can be applied in fairly rapid succession usually within 15 to 30 minutes. Thicker coatings can be applied provided suitable form-work is used. Close the surface using a wooden float or steel trowel.

HORIZONTAL SURFACES:

Screeds, patches, etc, based on SBR modified cements can be laid to any thickness down to a feather edge. After mixing, the SBR modified mix should be poured over the still wet bonding slurry and struck off. It may then be troweled to the required finish using a wooden float or steel trowel.

TYPICAL MIXES

MIX DESIGN 1:

Ensure surface is moistened and prepare and apply bonding slurry (see method of application)

Mix

Cement 50 Kg; Sand (zone 2) 150 kg and SBR 10 liters.

Add Water to achieve desired consistency (approx.10 L) yield approx. 0.1 Cum

Application

When preparing or applying mixes follow guides under method of application

MIX DESIGN 2:

Ensure surface is moistened and prepare and apply bonding slurry (See application)

Mix

Cement 50 Kg; Sand (zone 2) 150 Kg and IDEAL BOND SBR 15 liters.

Add Water to achieve desired consistency (approx. 5 L) yield approx. 0.1Cum

Application

When preparing or applying mixes follow guides under method of application

Apply bonding slurry to both surfaces. Using “buttering” techniques apply mortar to slurry coated surface. Brace where necessary.

These mix designs are only suggested mixes to show some applications and uses of SBR.

PROPERTIES:

Typical properties of an SBR modified cement and sand mix in the proportion of 3 parts sand to 1 part cement, are as following:

Compressive Strength         69N/mm2

Tensile Strength                   6.5N/mm2

Flexural Strength                  13N/mm2

Freeze Thaw Resistance     Excellent

Water Vapor Permeability    Reduced by 96%

Adhesion                              Excellent to concrete, steel, brick, glass etc.

Coefficient of Thermal             (at-20 to+20oC 12.8 x10-6)

Expansion                               (at +20 to+60oC 12.9 x 10-6)

Chemical Resistance           Resists mild acids Alkalis sulphates, Chlorides, urine, dung,

Lactic acid, sugar etc.

Resistance to water              Excellent- no water under pressure-30 penetration Meter-

head

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Dry Shake Floor Hardeners
General Category
Rana Imran
March 15, 2019
0

Concrete is hard, but not always hard enough. Some concrete floors wear out before their time. To make them last longer, the vendors offers a wide range of products, including dry-shake hardeners, sealers, and concrete admixtures.

Most shake-on color hardener manufacturers make blend pigments, Portland cement, finely graded silica sand, and wetting agents. They come in powdered form, packaged in bags or pails, and are tossed or hand broadcast onto the fresh concrete.

Dry shake hardeners have been used for years to strengthen, increase ductility or increase abrasion resistance in industrial floors. Today they are also used to increase light reflection, diffusion and to produce architectural effects.

Dry shake aggregate floor hardeners are commonly applied to the surface of freshly placed concrete to improve wear resistance and occasionally add color to a concrete surface. Application rates and the type of aggregate material vary depending upon the degree of abrasion resistance that is anticipated.

After the hardener wets up, a wood bull float is used to float the hardener into the surface before the concrete hardens. Unlike integral pigments, which color the entire concrete matrix, hardeners color only the top 1/8 to 3/16 inch of the slab. Decorative contractors often use dry shakes to color stamped concrete flatwork or concrete overlays, because the rich surface paste helps to produce sharper imprints.

Note that the thickness of a hardener has nothing to do with abrasion resistance. The quality of the aggregate used produces a consistent wear resistance. The thickness of the hardener increases service life only.

The application of surface hardeners is achieved through both hand and mechanical application. Hand application is normally completed after the initial set and floating of the concrete in order to maintain the hardener at the surface of the slab. Mechanical application is commonly performed immediately after concrete placement, before any initial set of the concrete has taken place.

Mechanical application is ideal for application rates of 5 kg/m2 or higher, but are not generally advisable for lower application rates due to concern over the aggregate sinking below the slab surface in the plastic concrete. The maximum application rate by hand is generally 5kgs/m2 (7.5 kgs/m2 for mechanical applications).

As a general guide to floor and slab construction and the application of the dry shake hardener refer to American Concrete Institute (ACI) 302 and to the technical data sheet for that specific dry shake hardener. Contractors involved with the placement and finishing of concrete slabs and or dry shake hardeners must be familiar with the guidelines provided by ACI 302.

Concrete mixes for interior floors should not include air entrainment and should not have a measured entrapped air content of more than 3% (whether a dry shake hardener is employed or not). Concrete mixes should comply with the recommended mix design considerations. The concrete mixes should also not use any fiber for shrinkage.

Quality control checks include: (1) the brand and product name of the hardener being applied, (2) the number of bags of material that are on site to install and (3) the number of bags of material actually applied to the surface of the concrete. Most hardener material manufacturers will provide for on-site inspection if requested by the Owner in the specifications.

Full application rates may not be possible in all conditions. Poor access, hot weather conditions and incorrectly designed concrete mixes can make the application of surface hardeners impossible to install at rate of 5kgs/m2 and higher. Surface hardeners are generally used for interior surfaces only.

Toughness that stands the test of time. For industrial flooring applications, the toughness of metal aggregate floor hardeners provides long-term savings and improved plant efficiency. Metallic aggregate dry shake hardeners can provide eight times the abrasion resistance of standard concrete and four times the abrasion resistance of mineral aggregate dry shakes.

Precautions

  • There should not be any bleeding or standing water on the surface of the concrete prior to spreading of dry shake floor hardeners.
  • The maximum application rate should not exceed 7.5 kgs/m2 due to significant concerns over the possibility of delamination between successive layers of hardener and the base concrete.
  • Pigmented hardeners should be applied at a minimum rate of 6 kg/m2.
  • Various rates can be specified in a building to suit the different uses in different areas.
  • Higher application rates reduce the achievable finished floor tolerances.
  • Accessibility, ambient conditions and low water/high cement content concrete mixes can make medium and high application rates extremely difficult to install and should be carefully considered during the design and planning stages.
  • Concrete mixes may require water adjustments for application rates in excess of 3.0 kg/m2.
  • It is generally not recommended that more than 5kg/m2 be applied on fresh concrete when using mechanical application methods.
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