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CMS Beginners
IT Related Article
admin
March 31, 2019
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About CMS Beginners

CMS beginners is a completely free tutorial website for helping newbies and experts to create, customize and improve their websites. Our vision is to provide complete guidance for everyone to start and designed a complete website or a blog. We also provide free support and help related to WordPress and Shopify for our special and regular visitors.

Why CMS Beginners

If you are an expert in dealing with cms and have the budget to invest in your business, then Shopify will be a great platform for you to build an online store.

If you don’t know how to code and love the drag and drop features of cms then wix.com, squarespace.com and weebly.com will be best for you to build a website or online store.

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epoxy flooring
INDUSTRIAL FLOORING
Rana Imran
March 17, 2019
0
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Anti Skid Materials for Road
General Category
Rana Imran
March 15, 2019
1

The road network and traffic density in Pakistan is increasing on a phenomenal rate which require a demand for superior quality all weather road marking products.

All the products are produced under licence from Adbruf Ltd UK on stringent quality parameters and tested by an independent lab along with an in house testing facility.

 

The most interesting products are the range of skid resistance. These reduces the skid of the wheels when breaks are applied. Resulting reduction in accidents related to slip.

The product is also available in pedestrian grade in different color shades.

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Waterproofing
General Category WATERPROOFING
Rana Imran
March 15, 2019
0

Waterproofing is the process of making an object or structure waterproof or water-resistant, so that it remains relatively unaffected by water or resisting the ingress of water under specified conditions. Such items may be used in wet environments or under water to specified depths.

“Water resistant” and “waterproof” often refer to penetration of water in its liquid state and possibly under pressure, whereas damp proof refers to resistance to humidity or dampness. Permeation of water vapor through a material or structure is reported as a water vapor transmission rate.

All structures require waterproofing – weather to keep water out (Basements), or to keep water in (reservoirs).

Waterproofing a structure is a critical element of its design and construction. Water infiltration and leakage damage a building’s structure and its contents. Because of the damaging effect of water, one must pay particular attention in selecting a quality waterproofing system and applicators to provide proper in place performance.

The most common sources of water leakage are through structural defects such as cracks and void, or through construction and control joints. Below-grade areas are susceptible to fluctuating water tables while horizontal decks are susceptible to pond water.

The best way to avoid the problem is through the proper design and careful selection of the waterproofing system.

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Joints Sealing
General Category
Rana Imran
March 15, 2019
0

Joints are essential features of modern buildings and structures. They allow for shrinkage, contraction, expansion and other movements which cause tensile or compressive stress. Shear movements, design tolerances and breaks between phases of construction are also accommodated by joints.

Joints cannot be left open. Any kind of joint that might be penetrated by wind, dirt, water or other undesirable material needs to be sealed.

After a building has been completed, joints are a small, usually unnoticed part of the whole. But if joints are not properly designed and sealed against wind and weather, the result can lead to total failure of the structure- larger the project, the greater the disaster.

If the sealing of exterior joints is concerned with keeping the elements out, interior joint sealing fulfills rather different functions. In addition to ensuring a joint impenetrable to moisture, there are many other important considerations: hygiene, acoustics, interior décor and finishes-there are even aspects of safety.

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Decay of Reinforced Concrete
General Category
Rana Imran
March 15, 2019
1

CONCRETE DECAY: Visible Symptoms…..

The decay of reinforced concrete is now a common sight around the world , Symptoms can include:

Cracking, Sapling, Rusting of exposed steel reinforcement, Staining of concrete surfaces etc.

Typical Causes

The many and varied causes of concrete ‘distress’ may be divided into two distinct categories:

-attack on the concrete it self

And……..

-those causing corrosion of embedded reinforcing steel

Both can exacerbated by the shortcomings in the original construction process.

Affecting Concrete Itself…..

Attacks on concrete can be physical or chemical:

•        Physical Attack includes

-Water erosion, Wind-borne sand erosion, abrasion by wheels, or machinery, impact damage, Overload, Fire, Freezing and thawing cycles in colder climates etc.

•        Chemical Attack includes:

-industrial spillage of aggressive chemicals, action of sulphates in ground water, internal crystal growth (in hot climates), alkali-silica reaction (ASR),

Causing Corrosion Of Reinforcing Steel

Corrosion of reinforcing steel is the most common reason for concrete distress. While many factors accelerate the process, there are two fundamental mechanisms which cause the problem:

•        Carbonation – the effect of carbon dioxide (and/ or other acidic gases) present in the atmosphere

•        Chloride attack – the contaminating effect of chloride ions which may be present from one or more of the following sources:

-marine or costal locations, -use of road de-icing salts, -within the concrete matrix as a result of the use of contaminated raw materials during construction

Due To Poor Workmanship…..

The original construction process can be the source of many problems. The most common reasons include

•        Poor Concrete Mix Design

•        Poor Placement of steel reinforcement and shuttering

•        Inadequate Site Supervision during concrete placement

•        Inadequate Concrete Vibration – failure to ensure proper compaction

•        Poor Curing Techniques – failure to ensure full strength gain

Decay Aggravated By Ambient Conditions

Each of the following will accelerate the mechanisms of deterioration described above:

•        Elevated temperatures, High humidity/rain, Wet/dry cycling

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Epoxy Flooring / Industrial Flooring
INDUSTRIAL FLOORING
Rana Imran
March 15, 2019
0

Floors in industry and commerce are not just parts of a structure. Industrial floors are heavily exposed to stress. Many production processes and procedures take place on these floors. They are also exposed to industrial chemicals. On top of this, industrial floors also have to meet a variety of operational requirements. Slip resistance, crack bridging, non-flammability, conductivity, aesthetics, ease of maintenance, and, last but not least, long life – these are just a few examples of the expectations for functional industrial floors.

Every industrial floor consists of two elements;

Element 1, the base course, which always consists of the structural reinforced concrete slab. The purpose of this “load-bearing” course is to absorb or distribute static and dynamic loads.

Element 2, the wearing course is the dominant part. The wearing course protects the floor from physical and/or chemical attack. The wearing course also has to meet the individual operational demands.

Each element has its function, which is precisely defined. An industrial Floor cannot be high – quality unless both the base course and the wearing course meet all of the requirements.

Two factors are particularly important in the construction or design of a high quality yet economic industrial floor:

–          The Operational Requirements

–          The Selection, Analysis and Preparation of a Suitable Substrate.

To select the right coating system, both must be examined in detail and coordinated. This is the only way to ensure that the industrial flooring meets the requirements of the project – cost effective and just right for the application.

OPERATIONAL REQUIREMENTS

The application and the severity of the operational requirements can vary widely. Below are a few examples of typical exposures;

Mechanical Exposure From:

–         Pedestrian and/or vehicular traffic

–         Low and light lift trucks

–         Transport containers, such as pallets, steel mesh boxes, containers, drums, reel holders etc.

–         Weight of tools/products/machines

–         Abrasion, shock and impact (broken glass etc.)

2.  Chemical Attack From:

–         Oil

–         Greases

–         Soluble Salts

–         Alkalies, Acids, Fuels, Solvent

–         Cleaning Agents etc.

3.  Thermal Stress From:

Heat:

Short term by steam cleaning etc,

Long term in specific production areas

Cold:

Short term by shock, open doors, etc,

Long term in specific production areas, cold storage etc.

4.  Weathering, Mainly On External Surfaces, From:

–         Sunlight

–         UV

–         Frost

–         thermal shock

–         Rain

5.  Aesthetics:

–         Color

–         Color design/coding

–         Colored chips, Gloss/ Matt

6.  Surface Safety:

–         Slip resistant

–         Electrically insulating

–         Conductive

–         Crack-bridging

–         Waterproof

–         Non-flammable

–         De-contaminable

–         Color stable

–         Low – odor

–         Environmentally friendly

–         Solvent free

7.  Texture

–         Smooth

–         Textured

8.  Care And Maintenance:

–         Easy to clean

–         Easy to repair

–         Overcoat able

9.  Comfort

–         Insulating effect (warm)

–         Dampening effect

–         Sound deadening

Selection, Analysis and Preparation of a Suitable Substrate

The second and equally important factor in selection of a suitable wearing course is the type of substrate and its condition. Any wearing course can only be as good as its base. If the load- bearing course or substrate is defective even the best and most expensive wearing course cannot improve it.

1.  Base Courses/ Substrates

–         Concrete

–         Cement/granolithic screed/overlay

–         Anhydrite screed

–         Magnesite screed

–         Poured asphalt

–         Old coatings

–         Ceramic tiles

–         Timber boards

–         Steel

2.  Location Of The Substrate

–         Internal areas

–         External exposed

–         On garde/no d.p.m

–         Risk of rising damp

–         Without insulation

3.  Substrate Condition

–         Age (new or old)

–         Moisture content

–         Surface profile

–         Density

–         Porosity

–         Brittle

–         Dehydrated

–         Physical strength

–         Compressive

–         Pull-off

–         Surface harness

4.  Contamination

–         Dust

–         Laitance

–         Oils, greases

–         Acids, alkalis

–         Paints, plastics

–         Fuels, solvents

5.  Damages

–         Shrinkage, isolation or settlement cracks

–         Sapling & voids

–         Roughness, erosion

–         Joint damage & broken arises

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Cold Weather Concrete
General Category
Rana Imran
March 15, 2019
0

Cold Weather for Concrete

Cold weather is defined as a period when the average daily temperature falls below 40°F [4°C] for more than three successive days. These conditions warrant special precautions when placing, finishing, curing and protecting concrete against the effects of cold weather.

Precautions For Cold Weather Concrete

To handle the cold, have everything you might need on hand and review these tips:

  • Frozen ground- NEVER place concrete on frozen ground or onto ice or snow. There are a couple of problems with this. First, frozen ground will settle when it thaws, cracking the concrete. Second, when the ground is cold, the concrete in contact with it will be cold and will set more slowly. You can even get crusting, with the top part of the concrete set and the bottom still soft.
  • If the ground is frozen, you can thaw it using hydronic heat pipes and blankets (such as those from Ground Heaters), or electric blankets (check out Power Blanket).
  • Remove all snow and ice in areas where concrete is to be placed. Also remove any standing water that could get mixed into the concrete.
  • Warm up anything that will come in contact with the concrete, including forms and any embedments, to at least 32°F. If it’s not too cold and you cover everything with tarps the day before the pour, it will stay dry and warm enough. Keep tools in your truck or trailer.
  • Be ready with blankets, even if you don’t think it will get that cold. Also consider whether you will need lights if the concrete sets more slowly than expected and the winter sun sets just as you’re finally ready to start finishing.

There will be some heat loss from the ready mix plant to the job site. For a one-hour delivery time, the concrete temperature will drop about one-fourth the difference between the air temperature and the concrete temperature. So if the concrete’s 65°F and the air is 45°F, in one-hour of travel it will drop 5°F and the concrete will end up at 60°F.

Anti Freezing Concrete Admixtures

DESCRIPTION:

It’s a chloride free admixture in liquid form for concrete in cold weather. Its addition helps to maintain normal setting times even at low temperatures.

USES:

·     Concreting at low temperatures.

·     Increased frost resistance.

·     Improved strengths at low ambient temperatures.

Antifreeze does not contain chlorides or other ingredients which can cause corrosion of steel. It is therefore suitable for reinforced concrete.

APPROVAL/STANDARDS:

Conforms to the requirements of ASTM C 494, Type C

TECHNICAL DATA:

Chemical Base Liquid, including special salts

Density 1.20 ± 0.01 Kg/Lit. (at + 20°C)

Freezing Point < – 15°C

DOSAGE:

1 % by weight of cement (for 100 Kg cement, 1,000 g)

COMPATIBILITY:

Antifreeze may be combined among others with the following products:

·        Silica Fume

·        Concrete admixtures

Trials are recommended before combining products.

DISPENSING:

Antifreeze is added to the gauging water at the plant or added on site into the concrete mixer. When added separately to the freshly mixed concrete, further mixing should take place for at least 3 minutes. Before being discharged, the concrete must be visually inspected for even consistency.

APPLICATION METHOD:

The standard rules of good concreting practice, concerning production as well as placing are to be followed.

CLEANING OF TOOLS:

Clean all tools and application equipment with water immediately after use. Hardened/ cured material can only be mechanically removed.

CAUTION:

·          If Antifreeze freezes in the drum, thaw gradually in a heated environment (avoid direct flame contact). Once thawed all properties remain unaffected.

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Conductive / Anti Static Flooring
INDUSTRIAL FLOORING
Rana Imran
March 15, 2019
0

Floors in industry and commerce are not just parts of a structure. Industrial floors are heavily exposed to stress.

Many production processes and procedures take place on these floors. They are also exposed to industrial chemicals.

On top of this, industrial floors also have to meet a variety of operational requirements. Slip Resistance, Crack Bridging, Non-flammability, Conductivity, Aesthetics, Ease Of Maintenance, and, last but not least, Long Life – these are just a few examples of the expectations for functional industrial floors.

CONDUCTIVE & STATIC DISSIPATIVE FLOORING SYSTEMS

In industries where electronic components or volatile chemicals are involved, electrostatic discharge can result in significant damage, injury and financial loss.

Even when people are equipped to handle static-sensitive devices and a facility’s flooring system meets the basic standards for draining static charge, inadvertent contact can occur. How? The first step is understanding how much charge your facility floor needs to dissipate. This factor can differ greatly by BVG (Body Voltage Generation).

Electrical charges can have catastrophic consequences in static sensitive environments. Static control flooring can be defined as a flooring system that can drain and/or dissipate static charges by ground personnel, equipment or other objects contacting the floor surface or that controls the generation and accumulation of static charges.

Electrostatic charges

Electrostatic charges can be induced from friction between two different kinds of material (between two non conductors or simply by common surface contact). Such charging takes place readily when most flooring material is walked on or driven over and these discharges can often be accompanied by sparks. As everyone is aware, in some industries, sparks can have devastating consequences. This hazard can be eliminated if our anti-static flooring system is the choice of the specifying engineer.

These products meet the requirements of electrical conductivity as well as a high resistance to chemical attack and are designed for applications in such places as laboratories, chemical plants, painting manufacturers and anywhere where solvents are used. Additionally, some industries such as the electronics trade, require anti-static coatings for protecting electrical components from failure.

LEAK-OFF OF ELECTROSTATIC CHARGES

The electrical discharge capacity of synthetic resin flooring is determined by measuring the ohmic resistance. As a rule, floors with a leakage resistance of 10+6 ohms are considered to be electrically conductive. However, each country has its own standards for how they rate this discharge capacity. For instance DIN 51953 applies in Germany, UL 779 applies in the United States and the British standard is 3398. However, many engineers have requirements far below those that are certifiable by organizations such as the Underwriters Laboratories, depending on the protection needed for their prospective environments. Although it is widely recognized in the industry that less than 109 ohms of resistance is considered to be anti-static.

SOME THINGS WE SHOULD KNOW

•         Concrete is conductive because of the moisture content present in the concrete. However, the moisture content can be highly variable. That is why a suitable primer must be used to achieve proper anti-static characteristics below 1.0e+9 ohms. The primer increases the conductivity by decreasing the ohmic resistance. The full potential is not achieved without an appropriate primer.

•         Finally, it should be pointed out that grounding the anti-static conductive system does improve the performance of the system by decreasing the ohmic resistance and charge buildup. The conductive primer is the product that should be grounded and not the topcoat or any underlayment placed prior to the primer. This is easily accomplished by grounding the coating with strips of copper or grounding straps connected to a water pipe or neutral conductor in the electric wiring system. Two earthing points normally suffice for a single room. One ground point per 200 square meters of floor space is the general rule for large areas when all individual slabs are connected with conductive copper strips or tape.

•         Hopefully, the above information has given a basis of understanding of how, why and for what reasons anti-static coating systems work.

Step Wise Anti-Static Flooring System

Application of Primer Coat

Repair after Primer Coat

3 mm Self Level Epoxy Flooring

Use of Copper Strip

Application Of Conductive Primer Containing Carbon Fibers

Application Of Final Conductive Coating (3 mm)

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Non Shrink Cementitious Grout
General Category
Rana Imran
March 15, 2019
0

Non-shrink grout is a hydraulic cement grout that produces a big volume that, when hardened under stipulated test conditions, is greater than or equal to the original installed volume; often used as a transfer medium between load-bearing members.

Typical characteristics

  • Often sets rapidly
  • Usually a pre-mix product that needs only to be mixed with [water]
  • Includes ingredients to compensate against cement stone shrinkage
  • Use of shrinkage-compensating ingredients can result in volume increase over time

Performance Requirements: Usually NS grout complying with the following requirements:

Compliance’s:

  • ASTM C1107, Grades B and C.
  • Corps of Engineers CRD C621, Grades B and C, at fluid consistency over 30-minute working time at temperature range of 40 to 90 degrees F (4 to 32 degrees C).
  • ANSI/NSF 61, for use with potable water

Compressive Strength, Plastic Consistency, ASTM C942 according to ASTM C1107:

  • 1 Day: 4,500 psi (31 MPa).
  • 3 Days: 6,000 psi (41 MPa).
  • 7 Days: 7,500 psi (52 MPa).
  • 28 Days: 9,000 psi (62 MPa).

Volume Change, Fluid Consistency, ASTM C1090:

  • 1 Day: Greater than 0 percent.
  • 3 Days: 0.04 percent.
  • 14 Days: 0.05 percent.
  • 28 Days: 0.06 percent.

Setting Time, Plastic Consistency, ASTM C191:

  • Initial Set: 2 hours 30 minutes.
  • Final Set: 4 hours.

Flexural Strength, Fluid Consistency, ASTM C78:

  • 3 Days: 1,000 psi (6.9 MPa).
  • 7 Days: 1,050 psi (7.2 MPa).
  • 28 Days: 1,150 psi (7.9 MPa).

Modulus of Elasticity, Fluid Consistency, ASTM C469, Modified:

  • 3 Days: 2.82 x 106 psi (1.94 x 104 MPa).
  • 7 Days: 3.02 x 106 psi (2.08 x 104 MPa).
  • 28 Days: 3.24 x 106 psi (2.23 x 104 MPa).

Coefficient of Thermal Expansion, Fluid Consistency, ASTM C531:

  • 6.5 x 10-6 in/in/degree F (11.7 x 10-6 mm/mm/degree C).

Splitting Tensile Strength, Fluid Consistency, ASTM C496:

  • 3 Days: 575 psi (4.0 MPa).
  • 7 Days: 630 psi (4.3 MPa).
  • 28 Days: 675 psi (4.7 MPa).

Tensile Strength, Fluid Consistency, ASTM C190:

  • 3 Days: 490 psi (3.4 MPa).
  • 7 Days: 500 psi (3.4 MPa).
  • 28 Days: 500 psi (3.4 MPa).

Resistance to Rapid Freezing and Thawing, ASTM C666, Procedure A, 300 cycles RDF:

  • 99 percent.

VOC Content: 0 lbs per gal (0 g/L), less water and exempt solvents.

SURFACE PREPARATIONS

Prepare surfaces in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

Clean steel surfaces of dirt, oil, grease, and other contaminants.

Ensure surface to be grouted is clean, saturated-surface dry, sound, and roughened to CSP of 5 to 9 in accordance with (International Concrete Repair Institute) ICRI Guideline 03732 to permit proper bond.

Chip concrete surfaces to roughness of plus or minus 3/8 inch (10 mm) when dynamic, shear, or tensile forces are anticipated. Verify absence of bruising in accordance with ICRI Guideline 03732.

Saturate concrete surfaces with clean water for 24 hours immediately before grouting.

Remove freestanding water from foundations and bolt holes immediately before grouting.

Grout and sufficiently set anchor bolt holes before major portion of grout is placed.

Shade foundation from sunlight 24 hours before and 24 hours after grouting.

If saturation is not possible use bonding epoxy on the substrate prior to grouting.

FORMING

Erect forms in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

Erect forms liquid tight and nonabsorbent. Seal forms with putty, sealant, caulk, or polyurethane foam.

Use head form sloped at 45 degrees to enhance grout placement, if necessary.

Erect side and end forms minimum of 1 inch (25 mm) horizontally from object grouted to permit expulsion of air and remaining saturation water as grout is placed.

Leave minimum of 2 inches (51 mm) between bearing plate and form to allow for ease of placement.

Use sufficient bracing to prevent grout from leaking or moving.

Eliminate large, nonsupport grout areas wherever possible.

Extend forms minimum of 1 inch (25 mm) higher than bottom of equipment being grouted.

Consult grout manufacturer for recommendations regarding expansion joints.

MIXING

Mix materials in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

Store and mix grout to produce desired mixed-grout temperature. If bagged material is hot, mix with cold water. If bagged material is cold, mix with warm water. Achieve mixed-product temperature as close to 70 degrees F (21 degrees C) as possible.

Adjust water to achieve desired flow. Recommended flow is 25 to 30 seconds using ASTM C939 Flow-Cone Method. Use minimum amount of water required to achieve necessary placement consistency.

Mix grout a minimum of 5 minutes after material and water is in mixer. Use mechanical mixers.

Do not mix more grout than can be placed in approximately 30 minutes.

Do not re-temper grout by adding water and remixing after it stiffens.

APPLICATION

Place grout in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

Ensure foundation, plate, and grout temperatures do not fall below 40 degrees F (7 degrees C) until after final set, when grouting at minimum temperatures.

Place grout from only 1 side of equipment to prevent air or water entrapment beneath equipment. Place grout in continuous pour.

Discard grout that becomes unworkable.

Ensure grout fills entire space being grouted and remains in contact with plate throughout grouting process.

Do not vibrate grout to facilitate placement. Use steel straps inserted under plate to help move grout.

Immediately after placement, trim surfaces with trowel and cover exposed grout with clean wet rags. Do not use burlap. Keep rags moist until grout surface is ready for finishing or until final set.

Wait until grout offers stiff resistance to penetration with pointed mason’s trowel before grout forms are removed or excessive grout is cut back.

Consult grout manufacturer before placing lifts more than 6 inches (152 mm) in depth.

CURING

Cure grout in accordance with manufacturer’s instructions.

Cure exposed grout with membrane curing compound approved by grout manufacturer and compliant with ASTM C309 or preferably ASTM C1315.

Apply curing compound immediately after wet rags are removed to minimize potential moisture loss.

PROTECTION

Protect grout from temperatures at and below 32 degrees F (0 degrees C) until grout has attained compressive strength of 3,000 psi (21 MPa).

Protect completed grout from damage during construction

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